INTRODUCTIONPsychology is the scientific study of human mind and behaviour: how we think, how we act, how we react and interact, both individually and as groups. Psychology is mainly concerned with the way the mind works.Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods vary with the topic under study.
Think of any question about how and why humans do the things they do, and the chances are that a psychologist somewhere will be researching it to find the scientific answer and further our understanding. The scientific knowledge gained by this research is then used by practicing psychologists (those dealing with clients and other professionals) in almost every setting. To pursue the career of a psychologist, one should have a genuine desire to help other human beings. There are specializations in many fields of psychology such as social psychology, child psychology, occupational psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology, experimental psychology, etc.Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology. Thus psychologists apply their knowledge and techniques to a wide range of endeavors, including human services, management, education, law and sports.
Career prospects in Psychology depend on the area of specialization. There is variety of options for psychologists. They can specialize in various areas such as
Clinical Psychologists - Clinical Psychologists work in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, community health centers or clinics.
Counseling Psychologists - Counseling is the skill of helping normal people, through discussion, to decide how best to cope in specific situations. They use various techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living.
Social Psychologists - Social psychologists work with social organizations and institutions in research, systems design or other applied psychology fields.
Educational Psychologists - They may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in the school setting.
Industrial Psychologists - Industrial psychologists work for business, industry or government. They apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace to improve the working conditions and productivity of employees.
Research psychologists -They use laboratory experiments and various kinds of tests, interviews, questionnaires and surveys.
Developmental psychologists - They study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life. Some specialize in behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, or changes that occur during maturity or old age.
Employment will grow because of increased demand for psychological services in schools, hospitals, social service agencies, mental health centers, substance abuse treatment clinics, consulting firms, and private companies. The nature of work of a psychologist is influenced most by the areas of specialization in the subject.
They work in a number of different settings like and much more.
• Universities and colleges.
• Primary and secondary schools.
• Government agencies.
• Private industry.
• Hospitals, clinics, and private practices.
• Social welfare organizations.
• Research establishments.
• Rehabilitation centers.
• Child youth guidance centers.
• Advertising industry.
After several years of experience, some psychologists-usually those with doctoral degrees-enter private practice or set up private research or consulting firms. The rise in health care costs associated with unhealthy lifestyles, such as smoking, alcoholism, and obesity, has made prevention and treatment more critical. An increase in the number of employee assistance programs, which help workers deal with personal problems, also should lead to employment growth for clinical and counseling specialties. Clinical and counseling psychologists also will be needed to help people deal with depression and other mental disorders, marriage and family problems, job stress, and addiction. The growing number of elderly will increase the demand for psychologists trained in geropsychology to help people deal with the mental and physical changes that occur as individuals grow older. Industrial-organizational psychologists also will be in demand to help to boost worker productivity and retention rates in a wide range of businesses.
Jung's approach to psychology has been influential in the field of depth psychology and in countercultural movements across the globe. He emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spent exploring other areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. His most notable ideas include the concept of psychological archetypes, the collective unconscious and synchronicity.
Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern people rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. Jung wrote voluminously, especially on analytical methods and the relationship between psychotherapy and religious belief. Books like the Modern Man in Search of a Soul, Memories, Dreams, Reflection continue to fascinate the reader even today. They present him with the richness of Jung''s mind. As a review in the New York Times declared, "People are reading Jung now because his concerns are theirs.
He was the first physician in the United States to be identified as a child psychiatrist and his first textbook, Child Psychiatry in 1935, was the first English language textbook to focus on the psychiatric problems of children. His seminal 1943 paper, "Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact", together with the work of Hans Asperger, forms the basis of the modern study of autism.
He became Director of Child Psychiatry in 1957. He retired in 1959 but remained active until his death at the age of 86.
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