Biotechnology is a research oriented discipline which includes the fusion of biology and technology especially in the field of agriculture, food science, and medicine. It is generally a technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Biotechnology as a business began with the birth of Genentech (DNA) which marked the beginning of a new revolution in medicine. Prehistoric biotechnologists refers the term "biotechnology" as the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment and they did this as they used yeast cells to raise bread dough and to ferment alcoholic beverages, and bacterial cells to make cheeses and yogurts, and as they bred their strong, productive animals to make even stronger and more productive offspring.
Biotechnology is referred to genetic engineering technology which involves procedures for modifying biological organisms according to the needs of humanity, where modifications are made to native plants for improved food crops through artificial selection and hybridization. Biotechnology generally works on the science of genetic engineering. Biotechnology industries are also gaining new horizons thus enabling them to improve the quality of their products and increase the productivity of their systems after the fast development in modern techniques.
Biotechnology combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, which are in turn linked to practical disciplines like chemical engineering, information technology, and robotics. Patho-biotechnology describes the exploitation of pathogens or pathogen derived compounds for beneficial effect. It is also associated with other subjects such as Health and Medicine, Cropping System and Crop Management, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Ecology, Bio-statistics, Cell Biology, Seed Technology, Plant Physiology etc.
There are many applications of biotechnology such as developing various medicines, vaccines and diagnostics, increasing productivity, improving energy production and conservation. Biotechnology's intervention in the area of animal husbandry has improved animal breeding. It also helps to improve the quality of seeds, insecticides and fertilizers. Environmental biotechnology helps for pollution control and waste management. The Department of Biotechnology in various countries has launched an integrated Manpower Development Programme which includes training of scientists/technologists for the expanding biotechnological research and developmental activities
When concerned with career biotechnology has become one of the fastest growing sector has a great scope in future. Bio-technologists can find careers with pharmaceutical companies, chemical, agriculture and allied industries. They can be employed in the areas of planning, production and management of bio-processing industries. There is a large scale employment in research laboratories run by the government as well as the corporate sector. They can work in a government-based entity such as universities, research institutes or at private centers as research scientists/assistants.
Alternatively they may find employment in specialized biotechnology companies or biotech-related companies such as pharmaceutical firms, food manufacturers, aquaculture and agricultural companies. Companies that are engaged in business related to life sciences also consider a biotech degree relevant to their field. The work scope can range from research, sales, marketing, administration, quality control, breeders, technical support etc.Thus with a background of fundamental cell and molecular biology and applied science; graduates are well placed to take up careers in plant, animal or microbial biotechnology laboratories or in horticulture, food science, commerce and teaching.
PIONEERS IN THE FIELD OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
RICHARD A. LERNER
Richard A. Lerner is one of the world's experts in the field of catalytic antibodies, which is based on understanding the binding energy of proteins and how that energy can be used to facilitate chemical transformations. In short, he has plumbed "nature's own combinatorial library" to employ antibodies as enzymes. Based on analyses of structural biochemistry and mechanistic enzymology, Dr. Lerner's research has yielded novel antibodies that function as catalysts. These new catalysts often employ reaction mechanisms similar to those involved in natural enzymes. Some reactions are not promoted by any known enzyme; others cannot proceed at all without the antibody. This line of investigation led to the novel discovery that ozone, a metabolic product of inflammation, may play a role in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Lerner is Professor of Immunochemistry, Chair in Chemistry, and President of Scripps Research Institute, based in La Jolla, CA. Scripps is a large private, non-profit research organization.
Philip Needleman is widely recognized for his pioneering studies on the role of Cox 1 and Cox 2 enzymes in inflammation, cardiovascular and renal disease, and in tumor progression. He and his research team were responsible for the basic research on Cox-2 enzyme inhibitors that led to the development of Celebrex, which reduces the symptoms associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Dr. Needleman also developed the first angiotensin receptor antagonist, the first thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, and he discovered atriopeptin, the atrial natriuretic factor, a novel endocrine peptide that permits the heart to communicate with the kidneys and blood vessels. Dr. Needleman has held positions in industry and academia. He was Chief Scientific Officer and Senior Executive Vice President of Pharmacia from 2000 to 2003, and Senior Vice President of Monsanto and President of Searle Research and Development in the 1990s. Prior to joining the pharmaceutical industry, he had a long tenure at Washington University School of Medicine where he served as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology. He is now a partner of Prospect Ventures Partners.
Horoscope - Career for Zodiac Signs
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