Growth and prosperity of an economy, to an extent is reflected in its physical appearance. The industry responsible for this is the construction industry, which for quite sometime is experiencing boom. Times have changed and so has our focus. From, the basic necessity of housing and shelter of yesteryears, emphasis is now given on comfort, luxury and style.

All this has importantly led to creation of avenues for those interested in making a career in this sector. In the last few decades our economy has witnessed hectic and massive construction activities, new structures have been raised, and townships have evolved, evident of growth in the sector. Architecture, in particular is the study which deals with planning and designing of building and structures. Architects blend their vision and dreams with materials to erect milestones which leave a powerful imprint on human mankind. Today, architecture has taken a totally different shape. The rapidly changing demands and requirements asks for professionally trained architects who can not only cope with changing times but also design and deliver quality, environment friendly constructions. Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are often known primarily through their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are an important link in public consciousness, even when scholars have discovered much about a past civilization through other means. Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with their architectural monuments.


The primary object of architecture is the creative manipulation of materials and forms using mathematical and scientific principles. Thus architects work for the spatial and shelter needs of people in groups of some kind by the creative organization of materials and components in a land- or city-scape, dealing with mass, space, form, volume, texture, structure, light, shadow, materials, program, and pragmatic elements such as cost, construction limitations and technology, to achieve an end which is functional, economical, practical and often with artistic and aesthetic aspects. The construction task involves both the designer and constructors. Any built structure is an outcome of close coordination and participation of a number of people, technical and non-technical, including architects, contractors, surveyors, engineers, designers along with bricklayers, masons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers etc. Everyone is specialized in his own area hence beyond comparison. Thus architecture includes the design of the total built environment, from the macro level of how a building integrates with its surrounding man made landscape (see town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture) to the micro level of architectural or construction details and, sometimes, furniture.


Designing any structure not only moves around giving physical facelift to it but involves other important factors which are equally important like its functional utility, safety and economy. Architects engage themselves in designing of a variety of structures including houses, apartments and colonies, offices and industrial complexes, hospitals, hotels, airport terminals, stadia, shopping and commercial complexes, schools etc. They provide professional services to individuals and organizations not only regarding new constructions but also in alterations and renovations. A good architect is the one who strikes a right balance between aesthetics and practicality. The work starts on the basis of ideas and requirements of the client like its appearance, financial budget and time frame. The architect then begins his job with sketching and making plans with details of sizes, specification and estimates of the cost of the structure. Sometimes models and graphics are also used for presentations. Once the plans are finalized and accepted by the client, the architect has to obtain the approval and permission of the local authority for construction. Subsequently, the architect negotiates contracts with building contractors, engineers and surveyors after which the construction starts. The architect is the overall in charge of the contract, his responsibility begins right form designing and planning the structure until the very same is erected. Architects work with firms and organizations, some of which specialize in a particular type of construction. Architects even indulge in interior designing; an upcoming field which involves scientific and artistic skills. Demand for interior designers continues to be high with these no longer limiting to corporate offices and hotels alone. Interior designers require abstract reasoning and three dimensional space perceptions to translate ideas into realities.


The subjects of specialization may include urban designing, regional planning, building engineering and management, architectural conservation, industrial design, landscape architecture, naval architecture, architecture concerning traffic and transport planning etc.


This field is a very competitive one with healthy career prospects. There is been a substantial increase in investments in the construction sector year after year. When it comes to architects there is a huge gap in the demand and supply. Employment opportunities for architects are available in government as well as private sectors. Some of the government organizations include

• Public Works Department,

• The Archaeological Department,

• Ministry of Defence,

• Departments of Railways, Post and Telegraphs,

• Public Sector Undertakings, National Building Organization,

• Town and Country Planning Organization,

• National Institute of Urban Affairs, Housing and Urban Development Corporation,

• National Building Construction Corporation Ltd.,

• City Development Authorities

• Besides these organizations, various other institutes and agencies like State Departments, Housing Boards, and Local Bodies responsible for construction works also recruit architects.

• Openings in the private sector exist with

• The Builders,

• Architecture Firms,

• Consultants etc.

• Architects with some experience can even set up their own business as Consultants and Contractors.


Frank Owen Gehry famous architectLINING TOWER OF PISA
Frank O. Gehry is the principal of the Los Angeles, California, architecture firm of Frank O. Gehry & Associates. Frank Gehry 's designs, which explore the possibilities inherent both in the methods of constructing and assembling architecture and in the formal composition of architectural forms, have been built or proposed all across the United States. Frank Gehry is the recipient of the Arnold W. Bnumer Award of the American Institute of Arts and Sciences and of numerous local and national design awards.


The Tower of Pisa was a work of art, performed in three stages over a period of about 177 years. Construction of the first floor of the white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, a period of military success and prosperity. This first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical capitals, leaning against blind arches. The tower began to sink after construction progressed to the third floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-meter foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil. This means the design was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Pisans were almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled. In 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built higher floors with one side taller than the other. This made the tower begin to lean in the other direction. Because of this, the tower is actually curved. Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria.The seventh floor was completed in 1319. The bell-chamber was not finally added until 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical scale. The largest one was installed in 1655.After a phase (1990-2001) of structural strengthening, the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visual damage, mostly corrosion and blackening.

There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano a well-known 12th-century resident artist of Pisa, famous for his bronze casting, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. His sarcophagus was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820. However recent studies [6] seem to indicate Diotisalvi as the original architect due to the time of construction and affinity with other Diotisalvi works, notably the bell tower of San Nicola (Pisa) and the Baptistery in Pisa. However, he usually signed his works and there is no signature by him in the bell tower which leads to further speculation.

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