Home > Gemology > Gemstones > Pyrolusite


Overview:Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide (Mn02), of importance as an ore of manganese. It is a soft, black, amorphous mineral, often with a granular, fibrous or columnar structure, and sometimes forming reniform crusts. It has a metallic lustre, and a black or bluish-black streak, and readily soils the fingers.

Pyrolusite is an oxidation product of weathered manganese minerals and also forms from stagnant shallow marine and freshwater bog and swamp deposits. Minerals such as rhodochrosite, rhodonite and hausmannite are often replaced by pyrolusite. The metal is obtained by reduction of the oxide with sodium, magnesium, aluminium, or by electrolysis.

Pyrolusite is extensively used for the manufacture of spiegeleisen and ferromanganese and of various alloys such as manganese-bronze . Pyrolusite is the most common and most important secondary ore of manganese. It forms under conditions of oxidation, either from primary manganese minerals such as the carbonate rhodochrosite, the silicate rhodonite, and the numerous manganese phosphates or as direct deposits from cold ground water in bogs and on the sea floor.

Physical Properties:


Pyrolusite Birthstone

Crystal System
MnO2, Manganese dioxide with impurities

Sign of Pyrolusite:Leo

Usage:Confidence, optimism, determination, bronchitis, metabolism, blood vessels, sexuality, eyesight.

Legend:Derived from the Greek for ‘fire wash’, Pyrolusite was used in glass-making to remove iron staining. With the ability to restructure energies, this stone heals energetic disturbances and transmutes dis-ease in all the bodies. Repelling negative energy and dispelling psychic interference, it prevents undue mental influence, dissolves emotional manipulation and provides a barrier to the attentions of the lower astral worlds. Enabling you to say true to your own beliefs, this tenacious stone gets to the bottom of problems and facilitates transformation. Offering support during deep emotional healing or bodywork, it releases disease and blockages in the emotional body, and stabilizes relationships.

Occurrence: Pyrolusite is found in lacustrine or marine deposits, where oxygen is available; often commercially valuable deposits are formed. The mineral occurs in the oxidation zones of manganese deposits and in certain hydrothermal deposits.The main producing countries are Russia, Brazil, South Africa, Gabon, India, China, and Australia.