Other Common Names:
The other common names for the jambul tree are Java plum, Black plum, Jambul, Nerale Hannu,Jamblang, Jambolan, Black Plum, Damson Plum, Duhat Plum, Jambolan Plum, Portuguese Plum, Malabar plum and Indian blackberry.
The scientific name of Jamun is Eugenia jambolana or Syzygium cumini L and it belongs to the myrtaceae plant family.Jambul or Jamun or Jamblang also called as Java Plum is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae, native to India, Pakistan and Indonesia. The Jambul Fruit is a well-known common fruit. It has two varieties.
The big one is oval in shape and is commonly called as suva-jamun. The small one is round in shape and is commonly called as kutta-jamun.Use of Jambul seeds for Diabetes was also confirmed by "Shaligram Nighantu Pharmacopia".The subacid fruit is largely eaten by the natives, and a vinegar prepared from it is regarded as carminative, stomachic, and diuretic. The seeds of Jambul are used in various alternative healing systems like Ayurveda (to control diabetes), Unani and Chinese medicine (for digestive ailments).
Jamun is a very common, large evergreen beautiful tree of Indian subcontinent.Jambul bark is a dense, hard bark, about 1.5 cm. in thickness, of a pinkish-brown or reddish-brown colour, with a whitish-grey mottled cork or thick bark, the inner surface is of a somewhat silky luster, frequently coarsely marked by waving lines or ridges; the fresh fracture varies from pinkish or purplish to fawn colour, sometimes distinctly but shortly fibrous, more commonly absolutely abrupt. The taste is somewhat bitter, astringent, after a time distinctly pungent.Jamun foliage comprises leaves measuring about 10 to 15 cm long and 4 to 6 cm wide.
These are entire, ovate-oblong, sometimes lanceolate and also acuminate, coraceous, tough and smooth with shine above. The fragrant flowers of Jamun are small, nearly 5 mm in diameter. These are arranged in terminal trichotomous panicles greenish white in colour. These appear during March-April.Jamun fruit appears in May-June. The berry is oblong, ovoid, green when just appearing, pink when attaining near maturity and shining crimson black when fully ripe. The fruit of wild variety called kath-jamun or woody Jamun are small and tart in taste. The ones of grafted for improved variety are large, and deliciously sweet, but slightly sour.
The jambul fruit has been cultivated in the Indo-Malaysian region for a long time. It is considered to be native of India or further east, but is now found in all tropical regions and grows abundantly during the rainy season. It is a common tree, found wild or cultivated in most parts of India. Its habitat starts from Myanmar and extends up to Afghanistan.
It grows naturally is clayey loam soil in tropical as well as sub-tropical zones. The jambul is a very adaptable species of plant, and widely occurs in many tropical and sub-tropical climates with different environmental regimens. A hardy plant, the jambul easily thrives on many types of soils, growing rapidly on lowlands, in wet areas and on higher, well-drained lands. The tree can grow on loamy soils, marl, sandy soils as well as soils with a high calcareous component.
The optimum growth of jambul trees with respect to elevation is from sea-level up to six thousand ft or eighteen hundred meters, however, the tree will not fruit when grown at altitudes above two thousand ft or six hundred meters - at these heights the tree is grown mainly as a timber source. The jambul grows very well in riparian habitats along river banks and is capable of tolerating prolonged flooding and water logging in such areas. Mature trees are also remarkably tolerant of drought. For the flowering and fruiting phases, the advent of dry weather is desirable but not necessary. The young and tender jambul trees are rather sensitive to frost; however, older stands of trees remained largely unaffected by brief spells of below freezing temperatures as seen in southern Florida in the US. As far as altitude is concerned, the jambul grows relatively better at higher, well-drained lands in loamy, marl, sand or oolitic limestone soils than it does on wet lowland soils. Harvest of jambul fruits that is grown in India, Australia and other Asian countries, is carried out late in the summer or early in the fall.
Jambul bears fragrant smelling flowers in clusters that are one to four inches in size - or two and a half to ten cm and they are generally in bloom March through April.
Pests and Diseases
Jambul is affected by diseases like fusarium wilt, rusts and powdery mildew. Anthracnose is the result of a plant infection, caused by a fungus, and may cause severe defoliation, especially in trees, but rarely results in death. Scales are insects, related to mealy bugs that can be a problem on a wide variety of plants - indoor and outdoor. Young scales crawl until they find a good feeding site. Blights are cause by fungi or bacteria that kill plant tissue. Symptoms often show up as the rapid spotting or wilting of foliage.
The fruits, seeds, leaves and the bark are the
most commonly used parts of the tree
for its commercial and medicinal purposes.
• An infusion of the fresh tender leaves of jambul fruit, taken with honey or butter-milk, is an effective remedy for sterility and miscarriage due to ovarian or endometrium functional disorder. The leaves presumably stimu1ate the secretion of progrestrone hormone and help absorption of vitamin E.
• The jambal fruit is regarded in traditional medicine as a specific against diabetes because of its effect on pancreas.
• The seed as well as bark have several applications in Ayurveda, Unani and Chinese system of medicine.
• Powder of the seed is an effective remedy for diarrhea and dysentery.
• The bark is astringent, and is used, alone or in combination with other medicines of its class, in the preparation of stringent decoctions, gargles and washes.
• The leaves are used to treat different gynecological ailments like endometritis and female infertility.
• An effective remedy for indigestion, soothing stomach cramps and dispersing gas.
• In parts of Southeast Asia, the roots are sometimes given as a treatment for epilepsy.
• One teaspoon of powdered seeds of jambul taken with fresh water especially at night checks the habit of bed-wetting.
• The jambul fruit is an effective food remedy for bleeding piles.
• Natural acids in the jambul fruit play an important role in the secretion of digestive enzymes and stimulate the liver functions.
• Unripe fruit is used for making vinegar.
• The juice of ripe fruit is used for preparing sauces as well as beverages.
• It is used in making agriculture implements, cheap furniture and also railway sleepers after creosote treatment.
• It is used in the making of rice mortars, cart parts and well curves, for it last well under water applications.
• Jumble tree used in the eastern parts of India to rear silkworm for making a particular type of silk called tassar-silk.
• Jambul wood is very strong and durable, and boats are made.