Speech Pathology & Audiology
Speech language pathologists and audiologists are concerned with the identification, prevention, and the rehabilitation of the adults and children with hearing and communication disorders. All the ages of the people are examined by the audiologists and detect the symptoms of auditory, hearing loss, balance and the related sensory and the neural problems. Speech language pathologists and speech therapists work with those people who have speech disorder such as inability during sound producing, fluency and speech rhythm problem, and the people having swallowing disorders. The work of speech language pathologists are evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and the treatment of the speech related disabilities, and designing alternative communication methods.
Speech pathology and Audiology are health related careers and the professionals or the practioners who are involved in treating this are called as speech pathologists and audiologists. They are qualified by special training, and their experience and skills provides the health related services and treatment. Speech language pathology and audio logy are distinct disciplines, but are so interrelated that to be fully competent in either, one should be familiar with both. Both deal with speech, language and hearing impairments that disrupt the ability of the sufferer to communicate and interact in various social situations.
The practice of speech language pathology varies in different countries and they are called as
The job titles for professionals working in this field include
- Speech-language pathology (SLP) in the United States and Canada
- Speech and language therapy (SLT) in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa
- Speech pathology in Australia
- Speech-language therapy in New Zealand
Thus these professionals help in developing the vital human skill - communication which makes the affected lives more productive.
- Program Director Rehabilitation Counselor
- Sign Language Interpreter
- Language Specialist
- Speech Pathologist etc.
Audiologic treatment contains fitting and dispensing hearing aids, cleaning the ear canal, and fitting and programming the cochlear implants. This also includes adjusting hearing loss, teaching communication strategies for the use in different environments and training on the use of hearing instruments. Speech therapist has the job of diagnosing communication disorders and disorders of swallowing. Implementing and planning the treatment, voice, speech and swallowing disabilities.
Certified Audiology professionals and Speech Language Pathology may find employment in the following areas,
- Rehabilitation Centers
- Hospital Industry
- Nursing Care Facilities,
- Home Health Agencies
- Research Labs
- Long-term Care Facilities
- Centers for Persons with Developmental Disabilities
- Private Practice
- Public or Private Schools
- Community Clinics, College/University Clinics
- State or Government Agencies
- Health Department
- Adult Day Care Facilities and Business.
H. Silverman became an internationally known speech pathologist, he was so ashamed of his own stuttering that he did not consider college until he was 23. His sister, who was studying speech pathology at Emerson College in Boston, where many of the department's professors also stuttered, encouraged him to enroll there, too." He didn't even know if he could pass the entrance exam," said Evelyn E. Silverman, his wife of20 years. "It turned out he was brilliant." Silverman joined Marquette University in 1971, and he still was a full-time faculty member at the time of his death. A native of Rhode Island, he lived in Greendale."He had a T-shirt - it said, 'I stutter. So what "said Edward A. Korabic, chairman of the university's Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology."Typically, he wore it on the first day of class. It got the students' attention." Silverman believed acknowledging his speech problem helped increase his fluency and ability to speak. For children learning to speak, however, making them stop or correct words can create stuttering problems, according to the diagnosogenic theory Silverman supported.
He became a vocal critic of the so-called Monster Study, secret stuttering research that was little known until 2001 news coverage. Wendell Johnson, a professor at the University of Iowa, directed the studies at a state-run orphanage in the 1930s, designed to study whether children could be made to stutter. Johnson, a stutterer himself, published his diagnosogenic theory based on other evidence, and became one of the world's most famous speech pathologists. Interestingly, decades after that research, Silverman worked with Johnson as a doctoral student for several months before Johnson's death in 1965.
Silverman respected Johnson's theory - even as he despised the research methods - and attempted to discuss the ethical considerations professionally and publicly. As the years went by, many professionals began to believe stuttering resulted from neurological problems. Silverman authored more than 20 books and text books and more than 150 professional papers, there probably isn't a specialist in the U.S. who hasn't studied at least one of his books. His work took him to England, Italy, Poland, Russia, Japan, the People's Republic of China,Guam, Saipan, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Gaza Strip.Silverman helped promote the development of clinical services in developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. He received an international award in 1998 from the Disabled Children's Association of Saudi Arabia and its royal family. He was the first U.S. citizen to earn the award.
Noma Anderson MSSp '73 has officially begun her tenure as president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), the national professional, scientific, and credentialing association for more than 123,000 audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists. She recently graced the cover of the ASHA Leader and talked about her plans as president in an interview in the publication. During her time, she plans to "communicate more broadly with members and the people we serve on the issues most important to ASHA." Important issues for her include professional autonomy, evidence-based practice, health care reimbursement, cultural and linguistic diversity, personnel shortages in health care and education, and doctoral shortages.
"As ASHA moves forward," Anderson said, "it is vital that we are able to attract students, both men and women from all racial and ethnic backgrounds, to careers in speech-language pathology and audiology. It is important that we provide them with the very best academic and clinical education so that they will be able to provide high-quality clinical service to clients from a wide variety of diverse backgrounds."Anderson is professor and chair in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Florida International University. A speech-language pathologist, she has been an ASHA member for 31 years during which time she has served on ASHA's Executive Board and has also been named an ASHA Fellow, one of the highest honors that ASHA bestows. In addition to her graduate degree in speech-language pathology from Emerson, Anderson holds a Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh.
Dr. Wendell Johnson was an American psychologist, speech pathologist and author and was a proponent of General Semantics (or GS). He was born in Roxbury, Kansas and died in Iowa City, Iowa. The Wendell Johnson Speech and Hearing Center, part of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics is named after this scientific pioneer. Considered one of the earliest and most influential speech pathologists in the field, he spent most of his life trying to find the cause and cure for stuttering -- through teaching, research, scholarly and other writing, lecturing, supervision of graduate students, and persuading K-12 schools, the Veterans Administration and other institutions of the need for speech pathologists. He played a major role in the creation of the American Speech and Hearing Association.
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Institutes :Some of the prominent institutions offering courses in speech pathology audiology can be had from the following links.. Click here for more information
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