Other Common Names:
The other commmon names for the Jujube berries are Indian Jujube,Ber,Brustbeeren,Judendornbeeren, Anab, Bedara, Ber, Beri, Bidara, Bor, Chinese date, Chinese jujube, French jujube, Kankole, Ilantai, Ma-tan, Masan, Onab, Taotau, Tsao, and Zao.
Jujube berries though has been cultivated for over 4,000 years in India it is a native of North Africa and Syria.There have been references of Jujube in a Chinese poetry in the 6th century BC itself as a potential Chinese medicine.Shennanog a famous Chinese herbalist conferred jujube as an almost miraculous health tonic full of healing powers.Gerard, in the 17th century, maintained that the herb was an excellent tonic for all parts of the body, especially the lungs and kidneys.Jujube berries are among the most persistent and long-lived imported trees in the South.
The trees average 25 feet in height and are covered with a rough, brown bark. They have many branches, with annual thorny branchlets bearing alternate, oval -oblong leaves of a clear green colour, with three to five strongly-marked, longitudinous veins. Nice lance shaped leaves turn a brilliant yellow in the fall. The small flowers are pale yellow and solitary.The berries are round or oval or even sometimes oblong.When the fruits are young they are vivid-red in colour but as they get dried the skin becomes leathery, thin, and wrinkled which turns to brownish red colour.
The jujube originated in China where they have been cultivated for more than 4,000 years and there are nearly 400 cultivars.Today it is been widely distributed throughout Asia,Russia, northern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and the south-western United States.
The jujube can grow in all kinds of soil and is resistant to alkalinity and salinity.The Jujube berries thrives best in acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It can also grow in light sandy, medium loamy and heavy clay soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Seeds are best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires 3 months warm then 3 months cold stratification Give gentle warmth (18-25C) to germinate. Seedling sends out a deep tap root so use the right sized container. Grow on for 2 years before seating out in permanent site. Germination should take place in the first spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer. Root cuttings are done in a greenhouse in the winter. Best results are achieved if a temperature of 5 - 10°c can be maintained. Seedling sends out a deep tap root so use the right sized container. Grow on for 2 years before seating out in permanent site.
The flowers which are hermaphrodite are bloom from April through May.
Pests and Diseases
Aphids, mites, leafhoppers, thrips, mealybugs are the most common pests which attacks the jujube berries. They are also occasionally disturbed by scales, whiteflies and blackflies.
The fruits, leaves and the bark are
the most commonly used parts of the tree for its
commercial and medicinal purposes.
• It is used internally in the treatment of palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night sweats and excessive perspiration.
• A decoction of the roots has been used in fevers.
• The fruits have medicinal use and are considered to be cooling and tonic.
• Jujube has been used in topical formulations for anti-inflammation, antiwrinkle, moisturizer, and sunburn relief.
• It is also used in the treatment of sore throat.
• The plant is a folk remedy for anaemia, hypertonia, nephritis and nervous diseases.
• Jujube berries helps in calming the mind.
• It also helps in cleansing the body through detoxification and treating fatigue and weakness.
• The wood is strong, durable, and smooth and it is used for the manufacture of musical instruments, artwork, carts, and ships.
• It is a source of fodder for cattle, camels, and goats.
• Jujube berries also yields honey.
• Traditionally used for making jam, jelly, fruit pulp for cakes, puddings and more.
• It makes an excellent fuel and charcoal.
• The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute