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Myrtle
Scientific Classification:

Kingdom Plantae
(unranked) Eudicots
(unranked) Rosids
Order Myrtales
Family Myrtaceae
Genus Myrtus
Species M.communis
Binomial name Myrtus communis

MYRTUS COMMUNIS

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Other Common Names:

The other common names for the shrub myrtle are Common myrtle and Roman Myrtle.

History

Myrtle was first introduced into Britain in 1597, and was used in the nineteenth century for bronchial infections, genitourinary problems, and hemorrhoids.
Myrtles have been cultivated for centuries and their native habitat is unknown. The genus name derives from myrtos, the old Greek name. In classical times it was a symbol of youth and beauty, as Aphrodite was said to have concealed her behind a myrtle bush after she arose naked from the sea. The epithet "communis" indicates that this is the common species Linnaeus also described a second species, M. taeentina, but this may well be just a variety of Myrtle communist plant is well known for its delicious fragrance and aromatic virtues from ancient history. The dried berry is an aromatic substitue for black pepper.

Description

MYRTLE SHRUBS1 MYRTLE SHRUBS2
True Myrtle is an evergreen shrub or small tree with dense foliage. It can grow up to a 5m tree, but the wild ones in Malta are smaller - often shrub-like specimens. White glandular hairs are present on young stems but not on leaves. The 2-inch lanceolate leaves are strongly scented when crushed. The leaves exemanate an aromatic and refreshing smell somewhat reminiscent to myrrh or eucalypt; the taste is very intensive, quite unpleasant and strongly bitter. It produces numerous stalkless leaves arranged oppositely and mostly at an angle of 45 degrees to the stems. They have a hard, leather-like, semi-glossy texture with an oval or spindle-like shape ending with a pointed tip. Leaves are between 2-4cm long, have an entire margin and are dark green in colour with a prominent pale midrib. The flowers are borne solitarily from leaf axils supported by long, slender pedicels. The latter have 2 small, basal bracteoles that fall off before flowers are ripe. The plant forms large number of flowers, which are spherical in bud. The actinomorphic flowers are pure white in colour and gives of a sweet fragrant smell. The calyx consists of 5, small, teeth-like, basally-fused sepals often with a reddish tip. The corolla is composed of 5, round-shaped, free petals about 1cm long each. The flower is characterized by a central cluster of numerous, slender, white, radiating stamens which are as long as, or slightly longer than the petals. They possess yellow anthers at the tips. The pistil consists of a small ovary with a white, firm style and undifferentiated stigma - hidden among the cluster of stamens. The developed fruit is a berry which is initially pale green, then turns deep red and finally becomes dark-indigo when fully mature. The labours berry can reach 1 cm in length and has a rounded vase-like shape with a swollen central part and remnants of the persistent calyx teeth at the outer part. Berries are edible with a sweet taste hence their widespread cultivation from ancient times in the Mediterranean region.

Range

Myrtle is widely distributed wild in Mediterranean area, Southern Europe and North Africa.

Habitat

The plant prefers full sun and adequate moisture with good drainage. It is generally seen in damp places such as in valleys, woodland garden, sunny edge and hedges. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation

Myrtus communis do best in light shade to full sun. We use a soil mix consisting of 1 part peat moss to 2 parts loam to 1 part course sand or perlite. The plant is highly drought tolerant. The soil should be allowed to dry in-between waterings. Tip chlorosis is a problem if the soil does not drain well. Fertilize monthly during the growing season. Trim in early spring to keep a desired form. The seeds are pre-soaked for 24 hours in warm water and then sow it in late winter in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up in the autumn and over winter in a cold frame. Plant out in late spring. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 7 - 12cm with a heel in November in a shaded and frost free frame. Plant out in late spring or early autumn followed by layering.

Flowering Season

The scented white flowers of the myrtle are in bloom from June to October.

Pests and Diseases

Tip chlorosis is a problem if the soil does not drain well. Aphids often infest the new growth causing an unsightly but harmless sooty mould to grow on the foliage. Heavy aphid infestations cause a heavy black sooty mold which detracts from the tree's appearance. Powdery mildew can severely affect Myrtle. Select resistant cultivars and hybrids to avoid this disease. Leaf spots are only a minor concern and do not require treatment.

Parts Used

MYRTLE PARTS
The leaves, berries and the bark are commonly used for its medicinal and commercial applications.

Medicinal Applications

MYRTLE MEDICINE
  • The berries have long been used to ease indigestion and stimulate the digestive system.

  • It is used in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, internal ulceration and rheumatism.

  • They are used also for spitting of blood, catarrhal defluxions on the chest, fluor albus and dropped womb or fundament.

  • The plant is taken internally in the treatment of urinary infections, digestive problems, vaginal discharge, bronchial congestion, sinusitis and dry coughs.

  • The leaves are made into an infusion and used as a vaginal douche for leucorrhoea and prolapsed of the womb.

  • It is used as a remedy for gingivitis and rheumatism.

  • Myrtle is employed in the treatment of epilepsy.
Commercial Applications

MYRTLE COMMERCIAL

  • The bark and roots are used to tan the finest Turkish and Russian leather to which they impart a delicate scent.

  • This scent is used in perfumes, soaps and potpourris and can be enjoyed in your garden too.

  • A high quality charcoal is made from the wood which is used for walking sticks, tool handles, furniture etc.

  • Myrtle has been used mainly to flavour strong meats, like lamb.

  • The liqueur Mirto is a made from both the berries and the leaves of Myrtus communis.

  • Myrtle a popular ingredient of traditional Mediterranean cosmetics and extracts were employed both as astringents and antiseptics.
 
Astrology

MYRTLE ASTROLOGY
The gastro reports for the shrub myrtle say that it is under the dominion of the planet Mercury.

Quotes from history

According to one interpretation, when "Adam was expelled from Paradise he was allowed to take with him wheat, chief of foods; the date, chief of fruits; and the myrtle, chief of scented flowers." This ancient tradition goes back to about 50 A.D. when the ancient Greek physician, Pedanius Dioscorides, used a Myrtle wine for a myriad of ailments including bladder infections. According to the myths Aphrodite (Venus) was born on the island of Cyprus then rode on a wave to Cnidos near Datša where she emerged from the sea naked and hid behind a myrtle bush.

Religious Significance and Symbolism

The greeks held this plant sacred to Aphrodite and in Christian religion, it has been associated with the Virgin.Myrtle is the symbol of divine generosity.

Folklores and Myths

Myrtle not only features in Greek mythology, but is also an important plant in the context of rural life. People in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, on religious holidays and other special occasions, visit the graves of their dead and lay myrtle branches and leaves upon them. In the past many Mediterranean brides carried bouquets that incorporated Myrtle sprigs, a tradition still seen in Israel today.